Storage: Keep in cool, dry and no light place
Calculus bovis, niu-huang or ox bezoars are dried gallstones of cattle used in Chinese herbology. In Asian countries calculus bovis are harvested when cattle (Bos taurus domesticus Gmelin) are slaughtered. Their gall bladders are taken out, the bile is filtered, and the stones are cleaned and dried. In western countries they are usually discarded. Its equivalent in Vedic culture is Gorochana.
Calculus bovis have a color varying from golden yellow to brownish yellow.
The shape of a stone is variable and depends on how it was formed, becoming spherical, oval, triangular, tubular or irregular.
Since natural calculus bovis are scarce they can be very expensive.
Niu Huang has a mild sedative effect. It reduces the stimulation induced by caffeine and enhances the sedation induced by morphine and barbiturates and other sedatives.
Some sources classify this herb as a Liver Wind Calming herb. It has a digestive stimulating action which is used to treat digestive conditions entailing enzymatic and biliary insufficiency with loss of fat breakdown and food allergies.
This herb has been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. For epilepsy induced by terror or mental disturbance, crush this herb, mix with honey and feed to the patient. For collapsed smallpox, grind 2 pieces of Niu Huang with 0.3g Cinnabaris Zhu Sha to a powder, mix with honey and rouge and apply to the lesion once a day. Taken orally, it treats furuncles, carbuncles, cellulitis and many other types of infections. Used topically, it drastically detoxifies and stops pain.
Calculus Artificialis Bovis Ren Gong Niu Huang is produced by treating cattle or pig gall by artificial means until a stone is produced. It is believed comparable to the natural substance for treating Heat toxin, but not as effective in opening the Orifices. This herb is not as effective at opening Orifices as Secretio Moschus She Xiang, but is very effective at clearing Heat and relieving toxicity. This herb also cools the Blood.