CHITAL DEER (Axis axis axis) Deer axis … (315 x 500) Original = (2057 x 3260) [Bezoar]

CHITAL DEER (Axis axis axis) Ciervo axis ... (315 x 500) Original=(2057 x 3260)

CHITAL DEER ......................................
cheetal deer, spotted deer, deer axis, chital, cheetal, indian spotted deer, indian deer
CIERVO AXIS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
chital deer, spotted deer, gacelo, deer of india
CERVO CHITAL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
cervo axis

Axis axis Erxleben, 1777
Order: .............. Artiodactyla Owen, 1848 (= Cetartiodactyla) (Artiodáctilos)
Suborder: ....... Ruminantia Scopoli, 1777 (= Ruminants)
Infraorder: ....... Pecora Flower, 1883 (= Pecoros)
Family: ........... Cervidae Goldfuss, 1820 (= Cervids = Deer)
Subfamily: ..... Cervinae (True Deer, Old World Deer)
Tribe: ............... Cervini
Genre: ........... Axis Hamilton Smith, 1827
Subgenre: .... Axis

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This species is one of the most beautiful cervids in the whole world.
From his homeland: India, he was transplanted to different corners of the world, in order to be actively hunted; its population in South America being one of the most numerous.

The genus Axis C. H. Smith, 1827. is subdivided into two subgenres.
The first is the subgenus Axis, of which this species is its sole member; the other subgenus is Hyelaphus, which is composed of three species (those that added to the one of the photograph take to 4 the species that integrate the genus Axis).
The 3 species of the subgenus Hyelaphus are:

# AXIS CALAMIANO ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
deer of the calamianes
~ Calamian Deer, Calamian Hog ​​Deer ......................................
Axis calamianensis (Heude, 1888)
This is one of the three native cervid species of the Philippine archipelago.
It only inhabits the Calamian Islands, a group belonging to the province of Palawan, in the Philippines.
It is small and is in danger of extinction, as it barely counted the 900 copies.

# AXIS DE BAWEAN ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ Bawean Deer, Kuhl's hog deer, Bawean hog deer ............
Axis kuhlii Müller, 1840
It is a species of endemic deer of the island of Bawean, in Indonesia.

# CIERVO PORCINO ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ Hog Deer ............................................... ......................................
Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1780
with two subspecies:

## ~ Hog Deer ............................................. .................................
Axis porcinus porcinus Zimmermann, 1780.
Which lives in Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, Bangladesh, China, western Thailand.
It was introduced in Australia, Texas, Florida and Hawaii, and Sri Lanka.

## ~ Indochinese Hog Deer, Thai Hog Deer .........................
Axis porcinus annamiticus (Heude, 1888)
Native to China, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand.

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DISTRIBUTION:
The species is native to Nepal, Bhutan, eastern Pakistan and the east coast of India to the coast of Malabar and Sri Lanka; in the north the geographical barrier of the Himalayas stops it.
From their homeland they were introduced for hunting purposes, in many parts of the world, which has caused damage, either by destruction or alteration of the affected ecosystems.
Thus, in order to be a hunting piece, specimens were released in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Mexico, England, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Hawaii, Texas, Florida, Andaman Islands, Pakistan , Moldova, Ukraine, Armenia, in the Brijuni Islands, near Istria Croatia, this would be the only population in Europe), etc.

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SUBSPECIES:
This species is subdivided into two subspecies.
They are:

DEER AXIS DE SRI LANKA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ Sri Lankan axis deer, Ceylon Spotted Deer ....................
Axis axis ceylonensis
Type locality:
This subspecies is endemic to Sri Lanka.
This deer lives in plains with dry forests, savannas, and shrubs; on very rare occasions, they live in dry mountain areas.

Generally, it lives in groups of between 10 to 60 animals, although the flocks can include up to 100 specimens.
They graze in close collaboration with langurs, peacocks, wild buffaloes, and sambares.
They are important prey for the leopard of Sri Lanka.
It is also the prey of sloths and jackals.
This subspecies is considered vulnerable.
The main threats are hunting for their meat, and deforestation.
Historically, it was found in large numbers throughout the dry zone of Sri Lanka, but these numbers have been reduced significantly.
Today only a few thousand survive in Sri Lanka, mainly in protected areas, with very few herds living outside protected forest areas.

The other subspecies is:

CHITAL DEER ......................................
cheetal deer, spotted deer, axis deer, chital, cheetal
CIERVO AXIS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
chital deer, spotted deer,
CERVO CHITAL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Axis axis Erxleben, 1777

This is the most common subspecies in the world, both in the wild and in zoos and game reserves.

ARGENTINA:
It was introduced in Argentina for hunting and ornamental purposes by the landowner Pedro Luro in the year 1906 in his Estancia San Huberto, current province of La Pampa.
Today it has wild cores or hunting grounds in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Formosa, Misiones, La Pampa, Neuquen, Cordoba, Santa Fe, Rio Negro, Entre Rios, Tucumán, and San Luis.
 
This country is one of the main destinations for sport hunting of this species, which far from diminishing its stock and distribution, increases it day by day, due to its excellent adaptation to the environment; it is for that reason that from seasons from April 1 to July 31, it was then passed to March 15 until September 1 and up to two pieces per exit and hunter, to finally conclude in the possibility of hunting it all year and without limit of copies per hunter.
For this reason, the capture of copies is a way to control their growing numbers.
In addition, its distribution overlaps with that of native cervids in danger of extinction, such as the deer of the pampas, the deer of the marshes, the Huemul, the Pudú, and the Taruca.
The hunt for this animal is made by stalking during the early morning hours, being able to extend all day until nightfall.
One walks between the strips of mount or rivers trying to locate with the binoculars a herd.
Once located, the approach strategy is traced until reaching a distance that allows the shot to be made safely, which often requires the hunter to crawl to collect the trophy.
The proper sizes are: .308 Winchester, .270 Winchester, .30-06 Springfield,. 300 Win Mag., 7 mm Rem Mag.
The shots are made at an average distance of 150 meters, guaranteeing trophies of 75 centimeters, being able to achieve exceptional of 95 cm, or more.
There are several companies that have an "Axis package", which includes:
the reception in Buenos Aires, accommodation in rooms, meals and drinks, guides, the capture of an Axis, and the primary preparation of the trophy.
For that package, a hunter is currently paying € 1270.
For similar packages, but in Australia, a hunter is currently paying € 2800 in the Kingham Reserve, € 3000 in Marble Island, and € 3500 in the Darwin area.

The record in the Argentine Ranking of Axis deer according to the Argentine Hunting Federation (C.I.C.) is 131.51 points, hunted in 1971 in Entre Ríos.
The record in the ranking of Axis deer according to the Formula Argentina (FACM) is 288.13 points, hunted in 2007 in Buenos Aires.

The Pampa:
The species was introduced for the first time in Argentina in this province, by the landowner Pedro Luro in 1906 in his Estancia San Huberto, current Parque Luro.
Today it has Axis preserves in several locations, for example in Toay, Quehué, Guatraché, General Acha, Valle Argentino, Ultracán, etc.

Buenos Aires:
In this province it was introduced in Estancia San Gerónimo, current party of Punta Indio, between the years 1928 and 1930, by Benjamín Muñiz Barreto.
In this province, later, it was declared a plague, but as its populations decreased due to the increase in hunting, it was protected.
Their wild populations of Buenos Aires are in development, becoming a latent danger of competition for a very threatened species, the Deer of the Pampas (Odocoileus bezoarticus celer) in the remaining nucleus of between 186 to 308 deer of the brackish marshes of the coastal strip of the Samborombón Bay, on the south coast of the Río de la Plata, in a sector with a clear estuarial cut.
From that original population they were taken to other places in Buenos Aires and the country.
In this province it also has populations and preserves in the parties of: Berisso, Magdalena, General Belgrano (Villanueva), Chascomús, General Lavalle (Est. Las Violetas, and Cuartel VII), Castelli (Cuartel VIII), General Pueyrredón, Balcarce, Coronel Dorrego (Est. Don Conrado), Colonel Súarez (Reg. XIII), Saavedra, Tornquist, and Bahía Blanca.
It is abundant in areas of mountains, marshes, or forests of felling of all the provincial east, from Magdalena to Mar del Plata, and from there throughout the Serrano system of Tandilia and Ventania, and on the sea, at the height of the town of Orense.

Neuquén:
The origin of the Axis neuquinos (and of the rionegrinos) is the release of 100 specimens that Aarón Anchorena made in the Victoria Island of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, at the beginning of the 20th century.
Luckily, the species seems not to have thrived in this insula.
Today the species has populations, more meager than the other exotic deer, in some areas of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, among other places in the province.

Black river:
The Axis would inhabit in limited sectors of the province, although for some it is no longer present there.

Between rivers:
In this province the Axis has records in the departments of: Villaguay, Uruguay, Diamante (Predelta National Park), etc.
 In 1985 the Axis began to invade the El Palmar National Park, multiplying enormously in the protected area, which led to a control plan by hunting with a rifle, managing to eliminate some 400 specimens.

Currents:
The Axis arrived to this province from the south, being already quite common in some departments of southern Corrientes.

Missions:
In this province it would be found in some estancia in the southern province, although there is no security.

Santa Fe:
Manadas de Axis inhabit, for a quarter of a century, the entire area between the river Saladillo Dulce and the river Saladillo Amargo, and the surroundings of route 39.
In the region of La Brava they usually cause damage to soybean crops, so they are actively hunted.
It also has populations north of Fortín Olmos; in the Estancia San Joaquín of the firm Pilagá; in Huanqueros; and on the islands of the Paraná River east of San Javier.
It has records in the departments of Vera, San Justo, and San Javier; in brackish straw grass habitats, spinal forests, and crop margins.

Chaco:
In this province it is found in preserves in Castelli.

Formosa:
In the eastern province, we can find axis in hunting grounds, with some notable examples.

Cordova:
It is found in some hunting grounds of the eastern province.

Saint Louis:
In this province inhabits hunting grounds of the southeastern departments.

Catamarca:
The species is found in the Las Beatas preserve, in San Antonio de Paclín.

Tucumán:
In this province the hunting club "Yastay" introduced Axis in the region of Tafí del Valle, those who later escaped from their confinement, multiplying in the gorges with alder forests of the hill (Alnus acuminata), especially in the Quebrada del Portugués .

URUGUAY:
The Uruguayan Axis live mainly in the western region, especially in the riparian mountains of the coast of the Uruguay River.
A translocation of some of these specimens was incorporated, unfortunately, in the Santa Teresa National Park, department of Rocha, a population that expanded to the north.
It has herds in the departments of:
Salto, Paysandú, Río Negro, Soriano, Colonia, San José, Flores, Peach, Tacuarembó, Florida, Canelones, Rocha, and Treinta y Tres.
In 1929 the Argentinean landowner Aarón de Anchorena introduced the axis deer for the first time in Uruguay, freeing specimens taken from Argentina on his 11,000 hectare property, located on the coast of the Department of Colonia, in the area known as " Barra de San Juan "; being at the death of this in 1965, the 1370 hectares surrounding the main town, donated to the Uruguayan state to create the current "Anchorena Presidential Establishment."
Today it is possible to see there some of the herds of the more than thousand specimens of this deer, constituting one of the biggest attractions for visitors.

BRAZIL:
This country has populations of this deer in some hunting grounds.

CHILE:
This country has populations of this deer in some hunting grounds.

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 CHARACTERISTICS:
Its layer is very characteristic with a reddish brown, beige, or cinnamon color throughout its body, being in its upper parts along the vertebral line a very bright fawn red.
It has a dorsal chocolate dark to black, and an irregular white stripe on each side, formed by a succession of spots in a row.
The whole mantle is adorned with rows of white machas.
Its hair is uniform and rough, in summer it tends to reddish brown, and in winter it shoots to grayish brown.
A bib in his throat, the lower part of his body, under the tail, and the inside of his legs are white.
Its neck is robust and with the hair a little longer than in the other parts of the body.
The males differ by the more robust neck, and because from the year of life they develop a spectacular antlers branched antlers, which renews every year.
 This horn is lost every year at the end of winter and reappears the following year with an even greater ramification.
The renewed horn grows wrapped in a velvety skin called velvet, eraser or correal.
This plush, once it has reached its full growth, eliminates it by rubbing against the trunks.
As in other cervids of tropical origin, there is no specific time of the year in which the turning takes place, so it is possible to observe encased deer, with or without horns, at the same moment.
The antler usually has 6 points; Each horn is formed by a bifurcated stem and a wrestler that is born on the rosette.
The wrestler forms an almost straight angle with the transverse and the front (or outer) tip of the terminal fork is much longer than the inside tip.
Its total length can exceed 90 cm.
Cases of supernumerary horns are also known.
 
The males reach between 75 and 90 centimeters at the withers (35 inches).
The females reach about 60 to 70 centimeters at the withers.
It reaches a normal weight of between 50 and 100 kg (165 and 220 pounds).
The total length (between the tips of the muzzle and the tail) is between 135 to 150 cm.
The length (from the tip of the snout to the base of the tail) is between 119 to 130 cm.
The length of the tail is 160 to 300 mm.
It has 66 chromosomes.
  
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BEHAVIOR:
In its place of origin inhabits the plains or low hills covered with trees, shrubs and thickets of bamboos, as well as the dense forests near the rivers, whose waters always provide an escape route against predators, as it is a great swimmer.
In case of danger, it moves away at great speed with its characteristic jumps and long jumps, showing the white patch of its small raised tail, which serves as a striking warning flag among the vegetation.

The axis tend to be more active during the first hours of the morning and again during the sunset, which is when they take to graze and ruminate as a group, hiding among the bushes in the hottest hours, remaining hidden and at rest, settling down between the pastures that it compacts thus forming a "bed"; but they are often observed near water eyes at any time of the day.
During the summer or where they are frequently disturbed they tend to be more nocturnal.

They are gregarious animals that live in groups generally of 5 to 10 individuals, formed by females with fawns and a young male, although it can also be composed of some adult male.
These groups help to defend the whole, multiplying the number of lookouts to watch over the pastures communicating by different signs the potential danger to their companions.
Sometimes it can form groups of more than 200 copies.
Normally males live in groups without females.
Some old males are usually loners.

The Axis has quite eclectic eating habits and is nourished by grasses as well as grasses, leaves and fruits of bushes and trees.
In winter it feeds on the buds of trees and bushes.

In Argentina, these animals are in heat from February until the beginning of April, during which the males separate and try to attract as many females as possible to form a harem.
This time is known as the bellow or brama.
During the bellowing the males emit a sound of complaint (bellow) which adds to the usual and characteristic whistle of alarm, similar to a "bark" short and sharp.
They rub the bushes and grasses with the horns and glands, marking the perimeter of their area.
The males become very aggressive with the other males that try to penetrate their territory and seize their harem of females, with which they engage in violent fights.
In some cases, some of the males end up dying from the wounds caused by the other male's antlers.
After a gestation period of between 210 and 225 days, usually one, sometimes two (very rarely three) calves, which have a birth weight of 1.5 to 3 kilograms.
Pregnant females or very small fawns become reserved.
Stay attentive but not so close to the baby, because in case of danger you prefer to get away to be the one who attracts attention.
The breeding is independent to the year of life, but the young females usually remain with the mother until the two years of life.
They begin with their first reproductive activities at 14 to 17 months of age.
The longevity of the Axis in captivity is up to 20 years.

Its main natural enemies are the tiger, the wolves, lions, leopards, and large pythons.
The feral population in South America is usually depredated only by man, who catches them for various reasons.
The dogs of the stays and the feral ones usually also predates them.
Among the native animals that can hunt them are the puma, and the big boas and anacondas; especially fearing their offspring foxes, ocelots, and yacarés.

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CONSERVATION:
The axis deer is considered to be "not threatened".
An interest in the domestication and breeding of different species of cervids has been revealed.
The axis, being non-seasonal reproducers, exhibit zeal throughout the year, whatever the latitude.
In this way, the date of birth can be programmed by controlling the date of entry of the males.
If they are scheduled to stop at the beginning of spring, they give the young two months ahead of the red deer or ladies who, being seasonal reproducers, have the estrus period in the fall and stop when the following summer is well advanced. .

This species is also captured to use its "bezoar stones", and for its meat being the male's somewhat harder, preparing it generally roasted on the coals.

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LOCALITY TYPE:
Type Locality: "Habitat ad ripas Gangis; in Iana, Ceylona"; restricted in 1951 to: India, Bihar, Ganges river islands.

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SYNONYMY:
It was also called Cervus axis Erxleben, 1777.

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Suborder RUMINANTIA:
Ruminants are a sub-order of artiodactyl mammals that includes some well-known animals, such as cows, goats, sheep and deer.
The ruminants digest the food in two stages: chewing and swallowing in a normal way, then regurguing the bolus to remasticar and swallow again, and thus extract the maximum nutritional value.
The stomach of ruminants is characterized by having several divisions (four in the case of cattle, sheep and goats).
Given these characteristics, unlike non-ruminants, they are able to take advantage of the structural carbohydrates present in the plants (cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin, the first two constituents of the fiber) thus having an additional source of energy and basing their feeding on the forage consumption.

It must be clarified that not all ruminants are part of Ruminantia, or belong to this suborder: camels and llamas are among the exceptions.
As a counterpart, some large grazing mammals are not strictly ruminant, but they have similar adaptations to survive with large quantities of low quality food, as occurs with horses.

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The CERVIDAE family:
The cervids represent one of the living families of artiodactyl mammals of the suborder Ruminantia.
The family consists of 4 subfamilies with 20 living genera.
They have thin legs, split hooves, long necks, straight or speckled hair, and are the only mammals that grow horns or new horns each year, formed by dead bone (in bulls, goats, sheep, etc. permanent).
In almost all species only adult males develop them and use them during the mating season, when cervids compete for females.
The antlers begin to form from two protuberances of the skull.
When growing, a velvet covers (commercially very valuable).
When the antlers grow, they begin to branch out, until, finally, the velvet falls, and in this way the antlers are complete.
They inhabit a good part of the planet, because they can be found in Europe, Asia, America, North Africa and some arctic areas.
In addition, it was introduced by man in New Zealand and Australia.
Most deer have a gland near the eye that contains pheromones, substances that serve to mark their territory.
They feed on leaves, branches and buds of plants.
The period of gestation of the females varies between 160 days to 10 months according to the species; They give birth to one or two pups a year that are called fawns or tufts.
 
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(April 4, 2010)
Zoo of Palermo, city of Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA

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